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Beta glucan induces proliferation and activation of monocytes in patients with advanced breast cancer

ABSTRACT

Glucans are glucose polymers that constitute a structural part of fungal cell wall. They can stimulate the innate immunity by activation of monocytes/macrophages. In human studies it has been shown that beta glucan has an immunomodulatory effect and can increase the efficacy of the biological therapies in cancer patients. In this prospective clinical trial we assessed in vivo effects of short term oral beta glucan administration on peripheral blood monocytes and their expression of activation markers in patients with advanced breast cancer.

Methods

23 female patients with advanced breast cancer were included in the study. Median age of the patients was 52 years. Sixteen healthy females with a median age of 48 years served as the control group for comparing the initial blood samples. Peripheral blood samples were drawn on day zero and patients started receiving oral 1–3, 1–6, D-beta glucan daily. Blood samples were recollected on the 15th day. In the initial samples mean lymphocyte count was significantly lower in the patients with breast cancer (1281 ± 306/mm3 versus 1930 ± 573/mm3, p = 0.04). In the patients with breast cancer, mean monocyte count which was 326 + 124/mm3 at the beginning, was increased to 496 + 194/mm3 at the 15th day (p = 0.015). Expression of CD95 (Apo1/Fas) on CD14 positive monocytes was 48.17% at the beginning, which was increased to 69.23 % at the 15th day (p = 0.002). Expression of CD45RA on CD14 positive monocytes was 49.9% at the beginning; it was increased significantly to 61.52% on day 15 (p = 0.001).

Conclusion

Oral beta glucan administration seems to stimulate proliferation and activation of peripheral blood monocytes in vivo in patients with advanced breast cancer.

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Protect Your Joints from AutoImmune Attack

More than 52 million Americans suffer from some form of arthritis.

Conventional medical wisdom has long held that rheumatoid arthritis results from an autoimmune attack on joints, while osteoarthritis was thought to result from age-related “wear-and-tear.”

For the first time, a team of researchers at Stanford University has demonstrated that this is not true!

It turns out that osteoarthritis is accompanied by the same pathological, pro-inflammatory immune factors involved in rheumatoid arthritis. Even more compelling was their finding that, if treatment is initiated before symptoms manifest, osteoarthritis may be entirely prevented.

Unfortunately, the list of available drugs to combat autoimmune disorders—including long-term treatment with corticosteroids like prednisone—is notoriously limited and comes with life-threatening complications, including obesity and diabetes.

The exciting news is a novel intervention has been identified that safely regulates the immune system to protect aging joint tissue from autoimmune attacks.

In this article, you will learn about natural collagen concentrate (NCC). Its unique molecular characteristics prevent immune cells’ overreaction to proteins normally found in cartilage and joint tissue that lead to pain and stiffness in both rheumatoid and osteoarthritis.

In multiple clinical trials using this proprietary collagen formulation, scientists at Harvard have been able to achieve relief of arthritic symptoms, with some patients experiencing complete remission!

You will also learn how NCC’s mode of action may be synergistically enhanced when combined with Boswellia serrata and two other joint-renewing nutrients.

The Stanford team’s discovery of the autoimmune link between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis was first presented in late 2011.

A group of 25 scientists concluded that the development of osteoarthritis is in great part driven by low-grade inflammatory processes. Specifically, the researchers discovered that the body launches an orchestrated, powerful attack on the synovial joints via signaling proteins normally used to fight infections. This autoimmune response, they reported, plays a key role in osteoarthritis onset.

Synovial joints are the most common joint types in the human body. They contain soft-tissue cushioning in addition to cartilage, along with synovial fluid, a natural lubricant. Knees, hips, and shoulders are just a few of the commonly arthritic joints that fall into this category.

What the Stanford team found was that low-grade inflammation is not merely an early symptom of osteoarthritic cartilage destruction in synovial joints—it is the trigger that causes it. The study also revealed that by targeting the autoimmune derangements that occur early on in the development of osteoarthritis, arthritis might be completely preventable.

They went on to point out that drugs intended to inhibit the arthritic reaction (like corticosteroids) paradoxically compromise the immune system. It would be far safer, they reported, if a natural way to turn off the body’s abnormal response were available.

Novel Method to Target the Pathologic Immune Response

Here’s how it works.These compelling new findings coincided with the development of a naturalintervention shown to protect tissues in aging joints called undenatured type II collagen.

Joints are lined with cartilage that both lubricates joints and absorbs physical impacts, preserving ease of motion and comfort. The bulk of the cartilage in your joints consists of collagen, a biomolecular protein critical to reducing friction and keeping joints youthful.

Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis both involve the structural degradation and gradual destruction of cartilage in aging joints. Osteoarthritis was long thought to be a consequence of simple “wear- and-tear” on joints (and hence largely inevitable). Rheumatoid arthritis, on the other hand, was recognized as an inflammatory autoimmune disease that arises when the body mistakenly attacks its own tissues, in this case the joint linings and cartilage.

We now know that both arise from pro-inflammatory immune factors.

Intrinsic to this process is the mobilization of “killer” T-cells into the joints by exposed collagen within the synovial lining.

Under normal conditions, collagen elicits no immune response. It is exposed collagen that immune cells mistakenly identify as invasive, foreign molecules.7 In response to the “threat,” inflammatory cytokines are released that draw in more “killer” T-cells.13 Those cells bombard exposed cartilage with toxic chemicals in order to destroy it, creating oxidative stress and further inflammation in the process.

Over time, these continuous biomolecular insults erode and disintegrate the cartilage that lubricates and functions as a shock-absorber in joints.

The resulting pain can become chronic and debilitating in lockstep with sensations of friction or grinding involved in joint movement. While less acute at rest, this pain is exacerbated by walking, standing, or any form of weight-bearing. Osteoarthritis sufferers often experience joint stiffness or immobility after periods of inactivity, for instance upon waking or after a long period of sitting.

NCC® Triggers Specific Oral Tolerance for Lasting Joint Relief

In both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, the chief cause of autoimmune response is exposed collagen and the ensuing attack by sensitized killer T-cells.

Suppose an effective means of regulating killer T-cells before they encountered exposed collagen could be developed? This would “re-train” them to treat exposed collagen as a harmless substance and prevent joint degradation and destruction.

In 2000, the first hint of just such an intervention emerged.

A team of scientists at the University of Nebraska was surprised to find that chicken soup prevented the mobilization of immune system cells to sites of inflammation. Upon further analysis, it was not vegetables but a soluble component of the chicken broth itself that exerted this anti-inflammatory activity.

The researchers believe that it was likely the collagen from chicken bones in the broth that was the source of this beneficial anti-inflammatory effect.

New Way to Combat Rheumatoid and Arthritis

  • The most common joint disease, osteoarthritis, was long viewed as a disease of wear-and-tear. New findings reveal that it is one of a number of disorders caused by an abnormal response of the immune system.
  • Instead of the traditionally prescribed NSAIDs and immune suppressants, a revolutionary and side effect-free form of undenatured type II collagen called NCC® has been shown to desensitize the immune system and prevent pro-inflammatory autoimmune attacks on aging joints.
  • Undenatured type II chicken collagen has been shown in studies to be capable of activating the pathway known as induced oral tolerance, which teaches the immune system to correctly recognize exposed cartilage proteins as the body’s own tissues—instead of foreign microbes—thus preventing an inflammatory attack, a newly recognized cause of osteoarthritis.
  • The anti-inflammatory action of a novel composition of AKBA-enriched Boswellia serrata—and two joint-protective nutrients, glucosamine sulfate and boron, now available in highly bioactive formulations—can further boost the ability of undenatured type II chicken collagen to fight osteoarthritis, the painful condition behind so many visits to primary care physicians. Owing to its particular molecular structure, the chicken-derived type II collagen in UC-II® acts as a kind of “reverse vaccine,” one that regulates the immune system so that it stops mobilizing attacks against proteins normally found in healthy joint cartilage.

It does so by inducing what immunologists call specific oral tolerance—the desensitization of immune response to specific agents via an orally administered intervention. This is why NCC® may be likened to a kind of oral vaccine that reverses T-cell attacks on exposed cartilage.

Scientists at Harvard first studied the effects of NCC® on human patients with rheumatoid arthritis, long established as an autoimmune disorder. In a randomized, double-blind trial of 60 patients, undenatured type II chicken collagen produced a significant decrease in the number of swollen and painful joints within 3 months, compared to the placebo group. In fact, 14% of patients achieved complete remission. No side effects were found.

Later, a much larger study of 274 rheumatoid arthritis patients confirmed this finding, as did a study on patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, a particularly aggressive form of this disease.

Turning their attention to osteoarthritis, scientists tested undenatured type II collagen on horses and dogs. They noted a reduction of 88% in measurable pain among horses given this formulation. In one study, moderately arthritic dogs given the undenatured collagen formulation were able to place more weight on sore limbs, and use them more naturally, relative to those given placebo, or those given chondroitin plus glucosamine.

The gold standard of scientific evidence is a randomized, double-blind, clinical study on humans. In a study of this type involving 52 adult human volunteers with osteoarthritis, who had an average age of 59, scientists found that in just 90 days, undenatured type II chicken collagen produced “significant enhancement in daily activities suggesting an improvement in their quality of life.”

In this trial, using the standardized WOMAC (Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index) scale, scientists found that 40 mg a day of undenatured type II chicken collagen reduced osteoarthritis symptoms by 33% in 90 days. By comparison, the combination of 1,500 mg a day of glucosamine and 1,200 mg a day of chondroitin sulfate reduced WOMAC scores by only 14%.

Pain scores on the visual analog scale (VAS) decreased 40% for the collagen group, while pain scores for the glucosamine/chondroitin group decreased just 15%.

Finally, using the Lequesne’s functional index score—which measures pain during daily activities, such as walking—the study team found that undenatured type II collagen reduced this score by 20%, while the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin lowered the score by only 6%. All results were observed in just 90 days.

Why Undenatured Type II Collagen

As discussed earlier, immune system T-cells are tasked with recognizing and distinguishing between “self” molecules and “foreign” ones. They do this important work by responding to very specific molecular shapes and 3-dimensional structures. If T-cells in the blood are simply exposed, without any “training,” to a previously unrecognized protein structure (such as those found on joint collagen) they react violently and trigger a massive inflammatory response to destroy the protein.

This is why, when scientists want to create an animal model of arthritis, they inject collagen into their subjects, sensitizing the T-cells in their blood to the protein. Those circulating T-cells set up inflammation in the animal’s joints, with their rich supplies of collagen.

If T-cells are given adequate preparation, however, they can be “taught” that a specific molecule is a friend rather than a foe. Where does such T-cell “training” take place?

In the intestinal tract, specifically the lower end of the small intestine, which is rich in collections of immune tissue called Peyer’s patches. Peyer’s patches act as “training centers” for T-cells, exposing them to all sorts of molecular shapes that are natural components of the food we eat. In that fashion, we desensitize our immune systems and develop a natural tolerance to new foods without having constant allergic or inflammatory reactions.

So, by providing native collagen of the right 3-dimensional structure to the digestive tract, rather than to the bloodstream directly, we can “educate” our T-cells to ignore collagen when they encounter it in joints. Scientists say that this enables people to develop oral tolerance to collagen.

And oral tolerance to collagen powerfully suppresses joint inflammation, as has been shown in numerous laboratory studies. Oral administration of soluble type II collagen even prevents arthritis induced experimentally by collagen injections.

But not just any collagen works. Typical commercial processing causes collagen to become denatured, uncoiling from its normal helical shape and losing its 3-dimensional structure. Denatured collagen has no beneficial effects on joint inflammation.

A more natural form of collagen, called undenatured type II collagen, or UC-II®, has recently been developed. UC-II® is a highly effective product and a rich source of natural collagen. UC-II® retains its original 3-dimensional molecular structure, keeping it recognizable by T-cells in Peyer’s patches. And UC-II is robust enough to survive the harsh conditions in the stomach and small intestine, arriving at Peyer’s patches with its molecules intact.

Neutralizing the Pro-inflammatory 5-LOX Enzyme

Incorporating a safe anti-inflammatory agent in a joint protection program may provide an additional layer of defense against arthritic damage and pain, by helping to eliminate the immune trigger.

In traditional Indian medicine, the gum resin of Boswellia serrata is associated with alleviating inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have shown boswellia decreases swelling and pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

Various compounds within boswellia exert an anti-inflammatory action that is different from most anti-inflammatory agents: they inhibit the pro-inflammatory enzyme 5-lipoxygenase or 5-LOX.

A highly bioactive boswellia compound—called 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-b-boswellic acid, or AKBA—directly binds to and selectively inhibits 5-LOX.21,22 This prevents 5-LOX from facilitating the production of leukotriene, a pro-inflammatory compound that damages cartilage and joints. AKBA also reduces pro-inflammatory leukocyte elastase activity. The problem up to now has been limited bioavailability of AKBA following oral administration.

Fortunately, researchers have developed a boswellia formulation with enhanced bioavailability. Scientists administering this patented boswellia compound to animals found that it increased the bioavailability of AKBA in the systemic circulation by 52%, compared with a standard boswellia extract.

The researchers concluded that the AKBA-rich boswellia product “consistently…confers better anti-inflammatory efficacy,” and “provides more potential benefits in recovering articular cartilage damage… due to inflammatory insult in arthritis such as osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis.”

In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on human patients with osteoarthritis, 100 mg of the patented AKBA-enriched boswellia extract inhibited the cartilage-degrading enzyme MMP-3, and exhibited an anti-inflammatory action that was superior to a standard boswellia extract. Benefits were seen as early in the 90-day study as 7 days. The journal-published report described the formulation as a “novel synergistic composition.”


Lower Your Risk of Type 2 Diabetes with ActiveBlendz Fiber+

Diabetes is a growing global public health epidemic. The number of people suffering from diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 worldwide. Sadly, this figure is expected to rise to about 642 million by 2040. Type 2 diabetes is, by far, the most prevalent form of diabetes.

In the United States, type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of all cases of diabetes. People with diabetes are at increased risk of suffering from serious health complications, such as stroke, kidney failure, heart disease, vision loss, premature death, and amputation of toes, feet, and legs.

Numerous findings from several scientific studies have established that diet, exercise, and body weight play a significant role in the causation of type 2 diabetes. Since diet plays a key role in the development of type 2 diabetes, making the right dietary choices can go a long way towards helping protect individuals from type 2 diabetes. In fact, the results of a study published in Diabetologia indicate that a 10 gram/day increase in dietary fiber intake is associated with a 9% reduction in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

How Fiber Protects Against Type 2 Diabetes

Excess levels of dietary fat encourages insulin resistance which is chiefly responsible for the build up of high blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes. Studies show that increased dietary fat leads to excess body weight which in turn increases type 2 diabetes risk. This is especially true when combined with the addition of sweetened foods. Eating whole plant foods high in fiber and water content can help. Fiber helps to lower blood sugar levels and maintain a healthy body weight.

Soluble fiber, a type of fiber that dissolves in water to form gel, helps to control the amount of sugar floating in the blood by slowing the absorption of sugar from the digestive tract to the blood. Foods high in soluble fiber include beans, apples, oats, peas, barley, carrots, and citrus fruits. Since fiber quickly gives us the feeling of satiety (yet adds no calories), eating high-fiber foods helps us to maintain a lean body weight and lose excess fat. By assisting us to keep our blood sugar levels and body weight within the healthy range, high-fiber foods help to prevent type 2 diabetes.

More Fiber Equals Less Type 2 Diabetes

About 1 in every 10 individuals in the United States above the age of 20 has diabetes. As we have seen, the number of type 2 diabetic patients is expected to increase in the coming years. The good news is that you can lower your chances of developing this metabolic disorder by eating low-fat oil-free, whole, unprocessed plant foods. Including more high-fiber foods, such as beans, greens, squash, yams, barley, and apples on your plate will help to reward you with a significant reduction of type 2 diabetes risk.

<<Click here to read the original article.>>

#activeblendzfiberplus #superiorfibermatrix #unparalleledformula#includesplantsterols #incrediblehealthbenefits #provenscienceandclincialtrials


Lower Your Risk of Breast Cancer with ActiveBlendz Fiber+

Boston, MA – Women who eat more high-fiber foods during adolescence and young adulthood—especially lots of fruits and vegetables—may have significantly lower breast cancer risk than those who eat less dietary fiber when young, according to a new large-scale study led by researchers at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

The study was published online February 1, 2016 in Pediatrics.

“Previous studies of fiber intake and breast cancer have almost all been non-significant, and none of them examined diet during adolescence or early adulthood, a period when breast cancer risk factors appear to be particularly important,” said Maryam Farvid, visiting scientist at Harvard Chan School and lead author of the study. “This work on the role of nutrition in early life and breast cancer incidence suggests one of the very few potentially modifiable risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer.”

The researchers looked at a group of 90,534 women who participated in the Nurses’ Health Study II, a large long-running investigation of factors that influence women’s health. In 1991, the women—ages 27-44 at the time—filled out questionnaires about their food intake, and did so every four years after that. They also completed a questionnaire in 1998 about their diet during high school. The researchers analyzed the women’s fiber intake while adjusting for a number of other factors, such as race, family history of breast cancer, body mass index, weight change over time, menstruation history, alcohol use, and other dietary factors.

Breast cancer risk was 12%-19% lower among women who ate more dietary fiber in early adulthood, depending on how much more they ate. High intake of fiber during adolescence was also associated with 16% lower risk of overall breast cancer and 24% lower risk of breast cancer before menopause. Among all the women, there was a strong inverse association between fiber intake and breast cancer incidence. For each additional 10 grams of fiber intake daily—for example, about one apple and two slices of whole wheat bread, or about half a cup each of cooked kidney beans and cooked cauliflower or squash—during early adulthood, breast cancer risk dropped by 13%. The greatest apparent benefit came from fruit and vegetable fiber.

The authors speculated that eating more fiber-rich foods may lessen breast cancer risk partly by helping to reduce high estrogen levels in the blood, which are strongly linked with breast cancer development.

“From many other studies we know that breast tissue is particularly influenced by carcinogens and anticarcinogens during childhood and adolescence,” said Walter Willett, Fredrick John Stare Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition at Harvard Chan School and senior author of the study. “We now have evidence that what we feed our children during this period of life is also an important factor in future cancer risk.”

<<Click here to link to the original article.>>

#activeblendzfiberplus #superiorfibermatrix #unparalleledformula#includesplantsterols #incrediblehealthbenefits#provenscienceandclincialtrials


ActiveBlendz Fiber+ Product Call (Audio Recording)

Tune in as Javita’s Director of Botanical Research & Development Monica Johnson takes us through the weight loss promoting and life-saving benefits of Fiber+, and shares with us how this incomparable formula stacks up against the competition.


Heart Health Starts with Fiber+

In recent years, a decline in both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been seen in some European countries and the United States. However, it still remains a significant issue accounting for almost half (48%) and a third (34%) of all deaths in Europe and the United States.

Many studies have examined the relationship between dietary fiber or fiber-rich foods and CVD risk factors.

Researchers at the University of Leeds reviewed literature published since 1990 in healthy populations concerning dietary fiber intake and CVD risk. They took data from six electronic databases. Cohorts of data were used from the US, Europe, Japan and Australia.

They looked at the following fiber intake: total, insoluble (whole grains, potato skins etc), soluble (legumes, nuts, oats, barley etc), cereal, fruit, vegetable and other sources.

Results from analyses of total, insoluble, fruit and vegetable fiber intake showed that the likelihood of a CVD or CHD event steadily lowers with increasing intake.

In soluble fiber, a higher reduction was seen in CVD risk than CHD risk and for cereal fiber, the reduced risk of CHD was stronger than the association with CVD.

A significantly lower risk of both CVD and CHD was observed with every additional 7g per day of fiber consumed. The researchers say these findings are aligned with current recommendations to increase fiber intake and demonstrate a large risk reduction with an achievable increase in daily fiber intake and say this could “potentially impact on many thousands of individuals.”

<<Click here to link to the original article.>>

#superiorfibermatrix #unparalleledformula #includesplantsterols #reducesCVDriskandmore #incrediblehealthbenefits #activeblendzfiberplus


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